It is foreseen by article 81 of the Constitution, the 33 precedents of the First Republic
It is the specter that hovers over every maneuver that risks not being approved by the last available date, December 31st. The provisional exercise it is foreseen by article 81 of the Constitution and constitutes an exception, with respect to the natural course of the budget session. It is being talked about with insistence, given the difficulties of the Meloni government in carrying out in Parliament a maneuver which, considering the date of birth of the executive, objectively had little time available.
Previous. They are far away but they are not few. During the First Republic, resorting to the provisional exercise was almost a habit. It happened 33 times. For twenty years, from 1948 to 1968, there was always a provisional exercise. The Rumor government, in 1969, was the first to get Parliament to approve the budget referring to 1970 on time. Andreotti, the following year and the Craxi government in 1983. From here on, it was the provisional exercises that became the exception: we arrived in 1986 with another Craxi government and in 1988, with the Goria government.
What does it entail. The main effect of the provisional exercise is represented by the stringent constraints on public spending. It is admitted ‘by twelfths’: in each month, that is, one twelfth of the items envisaged in the chapters of the draft budget can be used. Compulsory exits are excluded, such as those for public sector salaries. The authorization law establishing the provisional exercise can establish more stringent constraints.
What article 81 of the Constitution says. The State ensures the balance between revenue and expenditure of its budget, taking into account the adverse and favorable phases of the economic cycle. Recourse to debt is permitted only for the purpose of considering the effects of the economic cycle and, with the prior authorization of the Chambers adopted by an absolute majority of the respective members, upon the occurrence of exceptional events. Every law that imposes new or greater burdens provides the means to meet them. Every year the Chambers approve the budget and the final report presented by the Government by law. The provisional financial year cannot be granted except by law e for periods not exceeding a total of four months. The content of the budget law, the fundamental rules and the criteria aimed at ensuring the balance between revenue and expenditure of the budgets and the sustainability of the debt of the public administrations as a whole are established by law approved by an absolute majority of the members of each Chamber, in compliance with the principles defined by the constitutional law.