With the provision launched in 1998, the CPTAs were born
She is linked to Giorgio Napolitano, Minister of the Interior at the time in the Prodi Government, and to her colleague Livia Turco, head of the Department of Social Solidarity, the first immigration law, number 40 of 1998, which, among other things, provided for the establishment of Temporary Retention and Assistance Centers (Cpta), then modified over time until arriving at the current Cpr (Permanence and Repatriation Centres). That provision, 49 articles in total, contained provisions later consolidated in the legislative decree of 25 July 1998, n. 286, Consolidated law on immigration and the condition of foreigners.
Since then, even with the alternation of different executives and majorities, numerous changes have occurred, starting from those introduced by law 189/2002, the so-called ‘Bossi-Fini’ and, lastly, from those established by law decree no. .113 of 2018, with the Conte 1 Government and the Minister of the Interior Matteo Salvini, who modified the Consolidated Law, although not altering its overall structure.
The Consolidated Law intervenes on immigration law in the strict sense, concerning the overall management of the migratory phenomenon: the definition of rules of entry, residence, control, stabilization of migrants and also the repression of violations of these rules. Then on the law of integration, which concerns the extension, to a greater or lesser extent, of citizens’ rights (civil, social, political rights) to migrants.
What did he foresee?
The fundamental principles underlying the Consolidated Law are essentially three: the planning of migratory flows and the fight against illegal immigration (as regards immigration law); the granting of a wide series of rights aimed at the integration of regular foreigners (integration right).
The provision does not intervene in the matter of the right to asylum, the discipline of which, in the past contained in the legislative decree 416/1989 (the so-called ‘Martelli law’), has been regulated in detail by measures transposing community legislation.
As regards expulsion procedures, which are being particularly debated at the moment, when it cannot be immediate, foreigners must be held in special detention centers for repatriations, the CPRs, established by Legislative Decree 13/2017. These have replaced the Identification and Expulsion Centres, the CIE, which in turn had taken the place of the Temporary Permanence and Assistance Centres, the CPTA, established as mentioned with the Napolitano-Turco law.